The Government will send out £25 payments to eligible households when temperatures fall below 0C for seven consecutive days.
According to the Met Office, rural parts of the UK could experience temperatures below minus 10C on Thursday.
The Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) said the top-up of £25 will be credited to eligible people’s bank accounts within 14 days of the trigger.
People claiming pension credit, income support, income-based jobseeker’s allowance, income-related employment and support allowance, universal credit and support for mortgage interest could be eligible for the cold weather payments, DWP guidance says.
It said cold weather payments have been triggered in areas across the North West, including in Rochdale, Greater Manchester, in parts of the South West, such as near Exeter, and in Nottingham in the East Midlands, among others.
Parts of Powys in east-central Wales, Oxfordshire and Herefordshire, also have affected postcodes.
The cold weather payments are only paid in England and Wales.
In Scotland, people on benefits or low incomes may qualify for an annual £50 winter heating payment, though this is made irrespective of cold temperatures.
It comes as weather warnings have been extended into the weekend as drivers have been warned of dangers on the roads in parts of the UK.
The UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) has issued a Level 3 cold weather alert covering England until Monday.
The Met Office has warned motorists that wintry showers will create hazardous, icy patches on some roads over the coming days during the cold snap.
It said some disruption is likely, with icy patches on untreated roads, pavements and cycle paths likely to cause disruption.
There is also a possibility that slips and falls may result in injury, according to the report.
The Met Office has urged people to take extra care when driving or walking and to consider not cycling in the icy areas.
A DWP spokesman said: “These additional payments provide support every year to help people experiencing the coldest weather.
“Cold weather payments can be triggered right through to the end of March, giving people facing disproportionately cold weather that extra reassurance over the chillier months.”